Back to Basics: Individual Retirement Arrangements (IRAs)

Back to Basics: Individual Retirement Arrangements (IRAs)

Happy New Year and welcome to 2019!

Did “saving money,” “budgeting,” or “planning for the future” make your resolution list? Maybe you’ve even resolved to make your financial plan and are using it to get on your personal path to success in the new year. No matter which facet of funds you’re focusing on, have you considered starting or adding to an Individual Retirement Arrangement (IRA) account for 2019?

Whether you’ve been contributing for years or are just beginning to learn about IRAs, it’s nice to take a fresh look at their benefits, differences between the two types, as well as IRS changes now and again. That’s because topic of an IRA can be a very detailed one with nearly infinite circumstances and possibilities — enough that CPAs and attorneys base entire practices on the subject.

We’ll start with IRA fundamentals:

  • IRA types
  • How IRAs work
  • How you can use an IRA

One thing I want to stress here because I see this in practice from time to time: An IRA is an account type; it’s not an investment. No specific rate of return is tied to a certain type of IRA. The return on your investment within an IRA is dependent on what you invest in within the IRA.

Now for the details.

Types of IRAs and how each works

Two basic types of IRAs exist: Traditional IRAs and Roth IRAs.

Traditional IRA

A Traditional IRA, in its essential form, is a tax-deductible tax-deferred account type.

  • Tax-deductible means that when you add, aka contribute, money to a Traditional IRA, you receive a tax deduction, aka a reduction in your taxable income, for doing so.
  • Tax-deferred means that, as your Traditional IRA account earns interest, dividends, and/or capital gains, you do not need to pay taxes on those earnings in the year you earn them.

With the tax breaks come several restrictions. The first is that there are rules that govern your ability to deduct the amount of your contribution from your income. If you are a participant in an employer-sponsored retirement plan, you may not be able to deduct IRA contributions. It’s dependent on your — and, if applicable, your spouse’s — income.

Another restriction concerns distributions from your IRA. The “normal” distribution age for a Traditional IRA is 59.5. If you take money from your IRA at age 59.5 or later, the amount of the distribution is fully taxable to you as income. If you take a distribution prior to 59.5, in most cases, you will also pay a premature distribution penalty tax in addition to income tax.

Finally, at age 70.5, the rules require you to begin distributions from your IRA. These distributions, known as required minimum distributions (RMDs), are based on your life expectancy and the value of your Traditional IRA at the end of the preceding calendar year. RMDs, as the name implies, set a minimum standard that you must take from your IRA — and pay taxes on — in your later life.

Roth IRA

A Roth IRA is a tax-free account type, essentially. You do not receive any upfront tax benefit for contributing money to a Roth IRA. However, once money is in a Roth IRA, it may never be taxed again.

Because contributions to a Roth IRA are not tax-deductible, the rules on contributions focus on whether or not you are able to contribute at all to a Roth IRA. It does not matter if you participate in an employer-sponsored retirement plan. But if you and, if applicable, your spouse’s income is too high, you may not be able to add any money to a Roth IRA.

Although 59.5 is still the age for “normal” distributions, overall rules governing distributions from Roth IRAs are more favorable. Because the contribution was not tax-deductible, you are allowed to access money that you’ve contributed to a Roth IRA at any age without taxes or penalties. At age 59.5, assuming your Roth IRA has been open for at least five years, you can also access the growth within your Roth IRA without taxes or penalties.

Also, because there are no tax consequences when taking normal distributions from a Roth IRA, RMDs do not apply during your lifetime. The IRS does not care if you leave money in an IRA indefinitely because there’s no revenue for them to raise from distributions.

How to start and use your IRA

For both Traditional and Roth IRAs, the maximum amount you can contribute is $5,500 in 2018. If you turn 50 or are older than 50 in 2018, you can contribute an additional $1,000. The maximum contribution is cumulative between both a Traditional and Roth IRA, so you can’t contribute the maximum to both. You have until Monday, April 15, 2019, to make a 2018 IRA contribution.

Keep in mind that the IRS increased contribution limits for the 2019 tax year. Traditional and Roth IRA contribution limits are now $6,000 — plus that extra $1,000 allowed for those aged 50 and better. You have until Wednesday, April 15, 2020, to make your 2019 contribution.

Speaking with your financial planner can help you weigh the possibilities and benefits of contributing to either with a greater understanding of your tax situation.

Ready to schedule your next meeting?

Simply head to the Meeting page where you can find and schedule a convenient time to discuss whatever is on your mind.

Jason Speciner
jason@fpfoco.com

Jason Speciner is a CERTIFIED FINANCIAL PLANNER™ professional, an Enrolled Agent, and the founder of Financial Planning Fort Collins, a 100% employee-owned and fee-only firm. He is also a member of the National Association of Personal Financial Advisors (NAPFA) and XY Planning Network (XYPN). Since 2004, he has served clients of all ages and backgrounds with unique experience working with members of generations X and Y. To learn more, check out Jason's blogs and see the media he's been featured in.



MINIMUM ACCOUNT SIZE
The minimum initial investment for the Invest:FOCO platform is only $5,000 per account. This minimum can be met via transfer of an existing account or with new funds.
ANNUAL FEE
1.00% of assets under management ($100 per $10,000 managed). Debited from your account(s).
FINANCIAL PLANNING
Strategy:FOCO financial planning services are ongoing, and include unlimited phone, email, web and in-person meeting and consultation time. Pricing is based on the unique circumstances of each client situation. Generally, there is a one-time plan development fee ranging from $500 - $2,000 and a monthly fee of $150 - $500; cancel anytime. Clients utilizing investment management services with portfolios of $500,000 or more will typically receive financial planning services for no additional fee.
INVESTMENT MANAGEMENT
Assets Under Management (AUM)Annual fee as a % of AUM or flat-dollar
$0 - $249,999(See Invest:FOCO)
$250,000 - $499,9990.90%
$500,000 - $999,9990.80%
$1,000,000 - $1,999,9990.65%
$2,000,000 - $2,999,9990.50%
$3,000,000 - $3,999,999$15,000
$4,000,000 - $4,999,999$20,000
$5,000,000 or more$25,000 + $2,000 per additional $1mm
MINIMUM ACCOUNT SIZE
There is a minimum initial investment of $100,000 per Strategy:FOCO client household. This minimum can be met via transfer of existing accounts or with new funds. A client household may generally include accounts for a head of household, a significant other, dependents, and any controlled organizations or entities.

Minimums do not apply to inStream proactive financial planning as a stand-alone service.
ANNUAL FEE
Assets Under ManagementFee as a % of AUM
$100,000 - $249,9991.00%
$250,000 - $499,9990.90%
$500,000 - $999,9990.80%
$1,000,000 - $1,999,9990.65%
$2,000,000 or more0.50%

inStream proactive financial planning as a stand-alone service: $1,000/year or $100/month
MINIMUM ACCOUNT SIZE
There is a minimum initial investment of $100,000 per Strategy:FOCO client household. This minimum can be met via transfer of existing accounts or with new funds. A client household may generally include accounts for a head of household, a significant other, dependents, and any controlled organizations or entities.

Minimums do not apply to inStream proactive financial planning as a stand-alone service.
ANNUAL FEE
Assets Under ManagementFee as a % of AUM
$100,000 - $249,9991.00%
$250,000 - $499,9990.90%
$500,000 - $999,9990.80%
$1,000,000 - $1,999,9990.65%
$2,000,000 or more0.50%

inStream proactive financial planning as a stand-alone service: $1,000/year or $100/month
MINIMUM ACCOUNT SIZE
The minimum initial investment for the Invest:FOCO platform is only $5,000 per account. This minimum can be met via transfer of an existing account or with new funds. Invest:FOCO is currently available for Individual, Joint, Traditional IRA, and Roth IRA registrations.
ANNUAL FEE
0.65% of assets under management ($65 per $10,000 managed)
MINIMUM ACCOUNT SIZE
The minimum initial investment for the Invest:FOCO platform is only $5,000 per account. This minimum can be met via transfer of an existing account or with new funds.
ANNUAL FEE
0.65% of assets under management ($65 per $10,000 managed)
TAX PREPARATION
Invest:FOCO clients are eligible for a 10% discount on income tax preparation services offered through Fort Collins Tax Service, LLC. This discount applies to the base cost for return preparation as well as Schedules B & D. More details can be found here.
MINIMUM RELATIONSHIP SIZE
There are no minimums when utilizing inStream proactive financial planning as a stand-alone service.

When investment management services are desired, there is a minimum initial investment of $125,000 per Strategy:FOCO client household. This minimum can be met via transfer of existing accounts or with new funds. A client household may generally include accounts for a head of household, a significant other, dependents, and any controlled organizations or entities. inStream proactive financial planning is then included at no additional cost.
ANNUAL FEE
inStream proactive financial planning as a stand-alone service: $1,250/year or $125/month

Assets Under ManagementFee as a % of AUM
$125,000 - $249,9991.00%
$250,000 - $499,9990.90%
$500,000 - $999,9990.80%
$1,000,000 - $1,999,9990.65%
$2,000,000 or more0.50%
TAX PREPARATION
Strategy:FOCO clients are eligible for a 50% or 100% discount on income tax preparation services offered through Fort Collins Tax Service, LLC. This discount applies to the base cost for return preparation as well as Schedules B & D. More details can be found here.
Monthly Economic Update
Stay in the loop with our Monthly Economic Update. It's a great way to catch up on the things effecting your financial plan in an easy to read and relatable format.

We promise to only use your name and email address for sending our Monthly Economic Update. We will not sell, rent, lease, loan, or use your name or email address for any other purpose, internally or externally. You can easily unsubscribe at any time.
Monthly Economic Update
Stay in the loop with our Monthly Economic Update. It's a great way to catch up on the things effecting your financial plan in an easy to read and relatable format.

We promise to only use your name and email address for sending our Monthly Economic Update. We will not sell, rent, lease, loan, or use your name or email address for any other purpose, internally or externally. You can easily unsubscribe at any time.
MINIMUM ACCOUNT SIZE
Minimums do not apply to always-on, real-time financial planning as a stand-alone service.

For investment management services there is a minimum initial investment of $125,000 per Strategy:FOCO client household. This minimum can be met via transfer of existing accounts or with new funds. Investment management fees are generally debited from the accounts to which they apply. Financial planning services are included for Strategy:FOCO investment management clients at no additional charge.
ANNUAL FEE
Always-on, real-time financial planning as a stand-alone service:  $125/month or $1,250/year

Assets Under ManagementFee as a % of AUM
$125,000 - $249,9991.00%
$250,000 - $499,9990.90%
$500,000 - $999,9990.80%
$1,000,000 - $1,999,9990.65%
$2,000,000 or more0.50%
Five Savings Secrets
Are you 30 - 60? Let us give you a few tips with our free white-paper: Five Savings Secrets. Then stay in the loop with periodic emails featuring relevant information on financial planning, investment management, and income taxes.

We promise to never sell, rent, lease, loan, or use your email address for any other purpose, internally or externally. You can easily unsubscribe at any time.
Notice

This website or its third-party tools use cookies, which are necessary to its functioning and required to achieve the purposes illustrated in the privacy policy. If you want to know more or withdraw your consent to all or some of the cookies, please refer to the privacy policy.

By closing this banner, scrolling this page, clicking a link or continuing to browse otherwise, you agree to the use of cookies.

FINANCIAL PLANNING
Financial planning services are ongoing, and include unlimited phone, email, web and in-person meeting and consultation time. Pricing is based on the unique circumstances of each client situation. Generally, there is a one-time plan development fee ranging from $500 - $2,000 and a monthly fee of $150 - $500; cancel anytime. Clients utilizing investment management services with portfolios of $500,000 or more will typically receive financial planning services for no additional fee.
INVESTMENT MANAGEMENT
Assets Under Management (AUM)Annual fee as % of AUM or flat-dollar
$0 - $249,9991.00%
$250,000 - $499,9990.90%
$500,000 - $999,9990.80%
$1,000,000 - $1,999,9990.65%
$2,000,000 - $2,999,9990.50%
$3,000,000 - $3,999,999$15,000
$4,000,000 - $4,999,999$20,000
$5,000,000 or more$25,000 + $2,000 per additional $1mm
ESTIMATE YOUR FEE
Your fee is determined by the complexity of your needs and situation. The primary proxy we use for complexity is your investable net worth, which is generally your total net worth, excluding your primary residence. Your investable net worth includes the value of cash, bonds, stocks, mutual funds, rental real estate, and other business or financial interests. This aligns with the holistic nature of our comprehensive services. You can use the chart below to estimate your fee based on your investable net worth. In some circumstances, your fee may be more than the minimums in the chart below.
Annual Fee Investable Net Worth (INW)
$4,000 (minimum for an individual)Up to $500,000
$6,000 (minimum for couples)Up to $1,000,000
$8,000Up to $1,500,000
$10,000Up to $2,000,000
$11,000Up to $2,500,000
$12,000Up to $3,000,000
+ $1,000per additional $1,000,000 of INW
Critical Money Tips
Need some tips to help you tackle your next critical money moment? Stay in the loop with our weekly(ish) email!

We promise to never sell, rent, lease, loan, or otherwise use your email address for any reason inconsistent with our privacy policy. You can easily unsubscribe at any time.
Critical Money Tips
Need some tips to help you tackle your next critical money moment? Stay in the loop with our weekly(ish) email!

We promise to never sell, rent, lease, loan, or otherwise use your email address for any reason inconsistent with our privacy policy. You can easily unsubscribe at any time.
Critical Money Tips
Need some tips to help you tackle your next critical money moment? Stay in the loop with our weekly(ish) email!

We promise to never sell, rent, lease, loan, or otherwise use your email address for any reason inconsistent with our privacy policy. You can easily unsubscribe at any time.
Critical Money Tips
Need some tips to help you tackle your next critical money moment? Stay in the loop with our weekly(ish) email!

We promise to never sell, rent, lease, loan, or otherwise use your email address for any reason inconsistent with our privacy policy. You can easily unsubscribe at any time.
Critical Money Tips
Do you have a cash surplus? Learn more what to do with extra money in the free-preview of our Teachable course: Sudden Money and Windfalls.

We promise to never sell, rent, lease, loan, or otherwise use your email address for any reason inconsistent with our privacy policy. You can easily unsubscribe at any time.
Critical Money Tips
Are you here because of a big change in your finances? Subscribe for our PDF on 6 questions to learn the benefits of working with a full-time fiduciary.

We promise to never sell, rent, lease, loan, or otherwise use your email address for any reason inconsistent with our privacy policy. You can easily unsubscribe at any time.
Inheriting Money Can Be Overwhelming.
We have the expertise to be your guide as you navigate receiving a windfall.
Equity Compensation Can Be Confusing.
Let us make it less complicated for you. Whether it’s a one-time award or ongoing compensation, we know how to help.
Critical Money Tips
Need some tips to help you tackle your next critical money moment? Stay in the loop with our weekly(ish) email!

We promise to never sell, rent, lease, loan, or otherwise use your email address for any reason inconsistent with our privacy policy. You can easily unsubscribe at any time.
ESTIMATE YOUR FEE
Your fee is determined by the complexity of your needs and situation. The primary proxy we use for complexity is your investable net worth, which is generally your total net worth, excluding your primary residence. Your investable net worth includes the value of cash, bonds, stocks, mutual funds, rental real estate, and other business or financial interests. Our transparent pricing aligns with the holistic nature and value of our comprehensive services. You can use the chart below to estimate your fee based on your investable net worth. In some circumstances, your fee may be more than the minimums in the chart below.
Annual Fee Investable Net Worth (INW)
$4,000 (minimum for an individual)Up to $500,000
$6,000 (minimum for couples)Up to $1,000,000
$8,000 - $12,000$1,000,000 - $3,000,000
+ $1,000per additional $1,000,000 of INW